We get occasional inquiries on recommended field guides which cover our region. Walt Sturgeon has published a new field guide through Ohio University Press which I highly recommend. Here is a link to a recent review from well known nature photographer Ian Adams. – Jerry Pepera
There comes a time when you have to take a moment in your life and reflect on those people that made you feel good, even if it was for just one day or an entire year for that matter. I have met a lot of wonderful and interesting people since I have joined OMS a little over three years ago. I have witnessed several people come and go throughout many of our forays in those years, many of which provided a wealth of knowledge and insight to my mycological fascination. So this year, I decided I would start finally express those OMS members that made our club not only exciting this past year, but insightful and fun for many of us. I personally give thanks to…
Hugh Urban and Nancy Jesser for bringing a multitude of fungi knowledge on species to our mini-forays, being completely organized in the field, and knowledge some of the best hunting grounds for edibles in Ohio. Plus some excellent photos along the way! Welcome back long time members!
Karen Kelley and Mike Nagy for being the most dedicated OMS members in attendance to this very day. The guys I always enjoy seeing as they never miss an OMS foray! Plus, they travel all over the States for other larger Fungi related events and cultivate several varieties of edibles throughout the year.
Nicolas Copely for his intensity of hunting for wild edibles in Ohio and knowledge and some awesome spots in central Ohio. Plus one of our most ambitious new members to say the least with a vast knowledge in edible plants, berries and herbs.
And lastly, but certainly not in the least. The truest of true Ohio fungiphiles and a lifetime of dedication and knowledge to Ohio Mushroom Society—Dick Grimm! Thank you again for your stellar interview for all of us to enjoy!
Board members and members alike, feel free to continue the appreciation along in our comments box below to this post!
by Shelly Conrad
We had a blast! It just got better and better, from the pizza and salad party on Friday till the cleanup crew finished Saturday night.
8 minute video foray overview by Dan Greene
Thanks to all who found time to meet and greet us at the pizza party Friday evening. It was wonderful for the organizers to put a face to the names of people we’ve been communicating with over the previous months. Then there were those we haven’t seen in a couple of years, and we had a chance to chat with you for a few moments, undistracted by mushroom programs or activities, and old friends, like Sam Norris and Rose Sullivan, who generously offered to help at every turn and whose infectious smiles lit up our evening. Thanks also to Kaila St. Louis, who couldn’t make it to the foray, but stopped by to say hello and spend some time with us.
Our sincere apologies to our gluten free friends for the lack of gluten free pizzas. We called Big John’s in Canaan the afternoon of the foray to add a couple more pizzas to our order, only to find out that they forgot to order the supplies for us and couldn’t provide even one of the four gluten free pizzas we had ordered a full month earlier and reminded them of the week before. They didn’t even apologize. It’s a good thing we went out of our way to make sure there were plenty of gluten free, dairy free and vegan options in the salad bar, including marinated tofu, marinated artichoke hearts, shredded Cheddar, Feta, Parmesan, tuna with lemon juice, pickled eggs, olives, roasted peppers, garden fresh tomatoes from Nelle’s organic garden in Charleston, marinated cukes from Shelly’s organic garden, Asian marinated french green beans, German potato salad, raisins, watermelon, cookies, etc.
Three cheers to Sirianni’s, a long established Tucker County family owned business and their owner, Walt, who prepared 25 hand made pizzas exactly as we ordered them, all of which were ready at the time they promised. Our toppings including plain cheese Neopolitan (like pizza Margherita), cheese and pepperoni, cheese and house made sausage, lactose free spinach with roasted peppers, and cheese with vegetables. Oh, and we forgot to mention that we put out a bowl of warm Chanterelle Duxelles, for those who wanted to spoon some over their pizza. Special thanks to Charlie Aller, who made 2 trips to Sirianni’s so we’d have hot pizzas throughout the night. And sincere thanks to all the attendees who made donations to help cover the cost of the pizzas, salad, soft drinks and snacks. We appreciate and thank you for your support.
It rained almost every day for 3 weeks before the foray, with frequent and sometimes severe thunderstorms. As the foray date approached, we became increasingly elated because we knew we wouldn’t have a dry foray. On the other hand, while a little drizzle won’t stop a die-hard mushroom hunter from going out into the woods, thunderstorms are a whole different situation. In an abundance of caution, we contacted NAMA and we are really grateful to Steve Rock, who sent us a bunch of interesting and educational slide shows and DVDs to use in case thunderstorms forced us to cancel our Saturday morning foray walks. One of them was on VHS, and we thank Anne Cecelia Smith for converting it to DVD format for us. Thankfully, though, we didn’t need any of the rain contingency materials because Saturday morning was cool, dry and beautiful.
In the days before the foray, Bill Roody, Donna Mitchell, Chip Chase, Charlie Aller, Bruce Boyer, Walt Sturgeon, Gary Lincoff, Tom Volk, and the WVMC organizers walked for miles and scoured the Canaan and Blackwater Falls State Park areas to find the best trails for our foray walks. They worked hard to make sure we didn’t send you out on dry trails with few or no mushrooms/fungi. We want to thank our foray leaders: Charlie Aller, Bruce Boyer, Laura Ceperley, Chip Chase, Nelle Chilton, John Harper, Diane Holsinger, Martha Hopper, Gary Lincoff, Alan McClelland, Shannon Nix, Sam Norris, John Plischke, Rose Sullivan and Nancy Ward. We are really proud to have had such a capable and fun crew and we got great feedback from the attendees about their walks.
While everybody was out on their morning walks, Donna Mitchell, Bill Roody and Walt Sturgeon sorted and identified the mushrooms our attendees brought in from home. If you brought some with you, we really appreciate it. Not only does it give us a chance to see what’s fruiting in nearby areas, counties and states – but, if we’d been rained out, the mushrooms you brought with you might have been all we had to work with during our educational table walks.
We are looking for an attendee from Monroe county who brought mushrooms from home, because one of your specimens was a County record. If you brought mushrooms with you from Monroe county, please email firstname.lastname@example.org and let us know.
While the foray attendees returned from their morning walks and ate their lunches, the foray kitchen crew served lunch to the foray walk leaders, volunteers and faculty. In addition to a few slices of leftover pizza and some innovative vegetable salads, we also served a Philippine Pancit and other delicious hot treats.
After lunch, it rained. It rained so hard, we had to turn up our microphones so the speakers could be heard during their presentations. But we didn’t care. We were busy enjoying faculty members: Gary Lincoff (Which mushrooms are preferred in Asia versus North America and why), Walt Sturgeon (Getting to know Appalachian Boletes) and Tom Volk (Cryptic species: the hidden gems of mycology, which included some of our favorite edibles). We’re grateful that each of them took time out of their busy schedules to join us. Their presentations were educational, informative, and so much fun, we spent almost as much time laughing as we did learning. Organizer Shelly Conrad wrapped things up with a cooking demonstration on how to prepare candied Chanterelles which were later served over ice cream.
During the review of specimens table walk, we got a closeup look at the diversity of mushrooms and other fungi collected at the foray. Some items come in during every foray, regardless of the rainfall or humidity, like Indian Pipes and Amanita bisporigera, and others are hardly ever seen, like chagas and Sparassis, which beginners and photographers had a chance to examine up close. We were delighted to learn that the precious chaga wasn’t tossed into the compost, but taken home by the Plischkes, who ground it up for tea. Tom Volk described and provided information about the chaga and other items in the collection.
Walt Sturgeon taught us about the boletes that came in that day, many of which we’d seen earlier in his slide presentation but, as Walt pointed out, there’s nothing like actually being able to hold a mushroom in your hand, smell it, feel the texture of the cap and stem, and make notes or take photos for the future.
Gary Lincoff spent some time teaching us about the Sparassis that came in that day and then he detailed some of the unique characteristics of the genus Amanita. Since the most deadly poisonous species belong to the genus Amanita, every beginner needs to know how to identify Amanitas before attempting to collect and consume wild mushrooms. Until you are completely confident identifying Amanitas, Deadly Gallerinas, and other mushrooms that will make you sick or kill you, it’s best to avoid collecting any gilled mushrooms. While anybody might have a reaction to any mushroom, just as some people have reactions to peanuts, there are somewhat safer genera to explore as you continue learning about wild edibles, including Hydnums, Polypores, and eventually some of the boletes Walt taught us to identify.
Mushroom identification books were available for sale, most of which were signed by the authors at the foray, which will help supplement the information we learned during the foray presentations and table walks.
We were also honored to have visiting mycologists John Plischke III, Rick Kerrigan, and Shannon Nix, who were gracious enough to spend time answering questions and discussing the various finds with attendees and with each other. We loved meeting you or seeing you again and we thank you so much for coming and for helping out. We’re still amazed by Alan McClelland’s energy. He split his time between taking photos, identifying mushrooms, cooking and, somewhere in the middle of all that work, he and his wife Cathy found time to draw a fabulous picture on an artist’s conk to memorialize our foray.
A big shout out to Becky Plischke, who recommended that we take a group photo of all the mycologists and organizers, which we did, even though we may have to Photoshop Rick Kerrigan into the shot, because we couldn’t find him anywhere (he must have been in a nearby Agaricus patch at the time the photo was taken). Thanks so much, Becky. We would have missed a great opportunity if you hadn’t suggested the photo. A photo is attached and others are posted on our Facebook Group page.
Bill Roody warned, “There’s such a thing as too much rain,” as far as collecting goes, and we worried that there wouldn’t be many large fleshy mushrooms found. Bill Roody, Donna Mitchell, Walt Sturgeon and our visiting mycologists pitched in and identified 137 species, including 30 species newly recorded Tucker County, 3 species newly recorded in West Virginia, and one or two unidentified Cantharellus species in Randolph County that are being sequenced by Tom Volk. We’re still waiting for the final tally on the mushroom/birder walk, but it sure sounds like everybody had a good time. We tried our best to lure all of the identifiers to move to WV permanently. No luck there – but we hope they will return next year for the club’s 10th anniversary foray. We’re not sure of the details yet, but we know for sure that cake will be involved. Maybe Chanterelle cake. Maybe Candy Cap cake, but definitely cake. Maybe ice cream too.
Thanks to all of our volunteers. We know everybody pitched in, one way or another, to help things run smoothly. There were some hitches along the way (there always are), but for the most part, it was really more fun than work and we hope our volunteers had a good time. We cannot overemphasize how much it meant for us to have you on our team. The success of our foray is the direct result of your hard work. We know it, we sincerely appreciate it, and we never take it for granted.
We were happy to welcome all of you who drove several hours to attend the foray. It meant a lot to us that you came so far and we worked hard to keep the foray on schedule so you’d get home before dark. We sincerely hope you felt the trip was worthwhile, that you had a good time, and that you will be able to join us again next year.
There was a bumper crop of Chanterelles this year. Some old timers have never seen a year like this. That comment is not in the form of a complaint, just an explanation as to why we had so many Chanterelle dishes in the tasting menu. The mycophagy dishes we loved best were Lolita’s rice noodle and Chanterelle Pancit, Alan McClelland’s black bean noodle and black trumpet dish along with his amazing spiced plantains, and Lolita’s traditional Spanish Tortilla with black trumpets. As a reward for the hard working kitchen crew, Alan was kind enough to saute a variety of edibles, none of which ever made it out to the tasting tables. It was hard to tell which mushroom we liked best, because they were all so delicious, but it was really a great experience trying one right after another and comparing the textures and flavors as we worked to prepare the tasting dishes. Alan’s wife, Cathy, was always running around doing something and, among other things, she was kind enough to make gluten free cupcakes for those who got cheated out of their gluten free pizzas on Friday.
So, how about those T-shirts by Charleston, WV artist Jeff Pierson! They are unique and sure to become classics. We have some left over, which we will photograph and list on our Facebook Group page, in case you’d like to see or buy one for your collection. There was also a basket of mushroom related stuff that didn’t make it into the silent auction and we’ll list those items on the FB page too (they include a new copy of Mushrooms of Northeastern North America, a hand-made mushroom shaped candle, an ornamental metal watering pitcher with mushrooms on it, and a hand painted one quart ceramic mushroom pitcher).
2013 tasting menu (recipes to follow in next newsletter). If you helped prepare any of the dishes or brought or prepared anything we forgot to mention, please email us to let us know so we can mention you and/or your contribution in our next newsletter with the recipes. Please don’t be shy – we want to give credit where it’s due and you sure earned it in that hot kitchen. A photo of the worker bees in the kitchen and on the serving line is attached. We learned a lot from Tom Volk, a seasoned server from his Blue Star activities, who worked so quickly and efficiently, the rest of us had time to take brief breaks (so we could actually taste what we were so busy serving) while Tom manned our stations. Wow!
In the Kitchen:
by Shelly Conrad
- Goat cheese, mango chutney & sauteed Bradley Crostini (prepared by Cathy McClelland)
- Cannellini and Chanterelle soup (prepared by Nelle Chilton & Shelly Conrad)
- Chanterelle Dip (prepared by Shannon Nix)
- Candied Chanterelles over ice cream (prepared by ?)
- Gluten-Free Muffins (prepared by Cathy McClelland)
by Alan McClelland
- Black Trumpet & Chanterelles with Organic Black Bean Pasta
- Mushroom shaped organic coconut cacao cookies and coconut macaroons
- Spiced Plantains
- Cheesy potatoes (someone’s mystery recipe?)
by Lolita Fansler
- Chanterelle & Chicken of the Woods Pancit
- Black Trumpet Potato and Egg Tortilla
- Corn and Chanterelle Chowder by Nancy Ward (prepared by Nelle Chilton?)
- Marinated Chanterelles by Donna Mitchell
- Chanterelle Vermouth by Gary Lincoff
- Delicious home made brownies by Kara Brown
- Black Trumpet Butter by Walt Sturgeon
- Wild Rice & Bradley Casserole (3 versions!) by Nelle Chilton
Wild Edibles Tasting prepared by Alan McClelland
- Black Velvet Bolete (Tylopilus alboater)
- Califlower Mushroom (Sparassis crispa)
- Chesnut Bolete (Gyroporus castaneus)
- Gerard’s Lactarius (Lactarius gerardii)
- King Bolete (Bolteus edulis – Eastcoast North American variation)
- Peach Chanterelles (Cantharellus persicinus)
- Quilted Green Russula (Russula parvovirescens)
- Tawny Milk-cap (Lactarius volemus)
We are a non-profit organization and the annual foray is our one opportunity to raise funds for the next year’s activities, so we hope you’ll take a moment to click on the Paypal button below to join our club or make a donation to help fund next year’s foray. Those who have attended our forays over the years know that our goal isn’t to stockpile money in a bank account. The more money we have, the more snacks, drinks and amenities we provide to our attendees, volunteers and faculty. Your membership dues, foray fees and donations are gifts that keep on giving.
Suggestions: Our goal is to make the foray better each year. Please email us at email@example.com and let us know if you have any thoughts on how we can improve your foray experience next year.
I am writing to encourage you to share the attached May-June issue of The Mycophile, NAMA’s bi-monthly newsletter, with your club members. In this issue, we highlight the opening of registration for our 2013 annual foray in Arkansas on October 24-27, 2013 in the Ozark Mountain Range. The registration form is included in the newsletter. Bios and information about presenters at the event can also be found at: http://www.namyco.org/events/NAMA2013/index2013.html
As you know, NAMA lowered dues this year. Members of affiliated clubs like yours can now join for only $24 for an electronic membership, which includes an email version of The Mycophile (six issues per year). Please talk about NAMA at your monthly meetings, in your newsletter, and on your website.
I also want to share a new educational resource, put together by an enthusiastic writer, researcher and artist who lives in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This second edition of The Fungus Files, perfect for K-6 education and mycophiles of all ages, was edited by Bryce Kendrick who wrote The Fifth Kingdom. I have attached the document, or you can alert your members to this page: http://www.namyco.org/education/fungus_files.html which explains in detail how it can be used with separate pdf files for each chapter. NAMA is proud to host this remarkable work on our website.
NAMA is entering a new era. I hope you’ll let me know how we can help your club. Please contact me if you have any comments or questions by email or phone. I look forward to hearing from you.
Written by Tim Geho
Originally Published in the January/February 2007 Mushroom Log
Ed. Note: This is an excellent article to read before you go out hunting for morels later this spring.
Several species of morels grow in the Maryland, Virginia, and Washington, DC area. They are commonly referred to as black, white, gray, yellow, and half-free morels. All are taxonomically classified as members of the genus Morchella. Scientifically, there are probably two species of the white or yellow morel and at least one species of black morel in this area. The so-called M esculenta and M deliciosa can usually be told apart using nothing more than visible features; but unfortunately, each of them may actually comprise several species that can only be distinguished using DNA analysis.
The following may be news to many experienced mycologists. Recent research has determined that these names may not be correct for North American morels. M esculenta was originally described in Sweden. No North American morel appears to match any of the Swedish morels genetically. Since M esculenta has already been described, we may have to come up with a new name for the North American version since you can’t give the same name to two genetically distinct species. This may also be the case for M deliciosa and the black morels. Various authors have named the black morel as either M elata or M conica or M angusticeps. It appears so far that none of these species grows in the US either. Angusticeps is a North American name, but the name itself may not be valid.
Recent DNA sequencing has shown at least 14 taxa of morels present in the US; six species of morels have already been classified in Pennsylvania alone. Here we go again with more renaming of fungi. In his forthcoming book, Morels, (due October 2005) Dr. Michael Kuo treats several species of yellow morels that have been distinguished by DNA studies. For the time being the species names esculenta and deliciosa are used to differentiate between the two morphologically distinct yellow morels. The larger and thicker fleshed variety that grows under several varieties of trees is currently being called esculenta. The name deliciosa is being used for the smaller, thin fleshed, usually pointed morel commonly found most often under tulip poplars or ash trees. To learn more about the taxa that have been identified, go to http://www.MushroomExpert.com. Dr. Kuo is one of the principal developers and administrator of that site.
The scientific effort at classifying morels using DNA results is currently in high gear. Much of the effort is associated with the Morel Data Collection Project (MDCP). Hopefully some day or year soon, we may finally know how many species of morels there actually are, and they may actually have widely accepted names. One thing that has been established is that what many people and some books referred to as M crassipes has DNA identical to that of what is currently called M esculenta. The MDCP needs specimens of morels from the East Coast, especially of the species M semilibera, because it is thought that there may be a species in the eastern US not found elsewhere. If any club members wish to contribute a few morels to the effort, they are encouraged to visit http://www.MushroomExpert.com the main web site for the MDCP. One mushroom with a little supporting information can help solve the issue of how many species of morels there are and their distribution.
Morels can be found in a variety of habitats in this part of the country. Trees that are known to associate with morels in this area are tulip poplars, ash (both white and green), hickory, dead or dying elms, cherry, apple, striped maple, grapevines and sycamore. There are many more trees morels are known to associate with across the country. It may well be that some of the morels found locally are actually growing in association with these other trees, though people may be unaware of which species the trees are due to their inability to properly identify them. The most common tree people look for morels under in the DC area is the tulip poplar, but you can add to your haul if you learn to identify and look under other species of trees such as white or green ash, and dead or dying American elm. The other trees listed are not usually found in large stands like tulip poplars, but they may be in small groups or mixed in or adjacent to the poplars. In some sections of Maryland and Pennsylvania there have been reports of morels being found in mixed tulip poplar/ white pine woods; in other parts of the country morels have been found in exclusive white pine woods. It may pay to look under white pines in this area especially if they are mixed with or adjacent to tulip poplar woods. In some other areas of the country, usually the western US, morels can often be found in burned areas. Since the tulip polar habitat is most abundant in the MDIDC area, the suggestions that follow are geared toward finding morels in this habitat. Even though the suggestions are geared toward tulip polar woods, if one finds the other trees listed above, the same indicators and methods will also apply.
Morel fruiting in this area can occur as early as late March and can last until mid to late May in higher locations. The season for the black morel occurs first and lasts about three weeks. The season for the yellows or whites comes next and can last about four weeks. These seasons usually overlap, with the yellow morels beginning to fruit as the season for the black morel draws to an end. The season for M semilibera usually overlaps the seasons for black and yellow morels. Most years the peak times are from about April 10th to May 10th. Morels usually begin to fruit in the greater DC and surrounding area a week or so before they do in the Shenandoah area of Virginia or mountainous areas of Maryland.
Morels can grow in a variety of soils from sandy to clay. Some books claim that the soil pH needs to be on the alkaline side with at least a pH of 7.1. However, when soil samples from across the US were collected in 2004 in conjunction with the MDCP, only three had pH above 7.0, and three samples from the Front Royal/Luray area of Virginia had pH readings of 4.4,5.3, and 5.8. I’ll leave it up to the reader as to what to believe the proper pH is.
No matter which name you want to use or what type of morel you are looking for, there are some tips, suggestions, and signs that may aid your efforts. The most important item is to look in the proper habitat. You are not likely to find morels in pine woods in this area with the possible exception of white pine. They are however found in the piney woods of eastern Texas. Probably the best habitat to search in this area is tulip poplar forests with few other trees mixed in. If you find a stand of almost pure tulip poplars, the leaves form a paper-like ground cover that is easier to see morels against than one with a fluffier layer of leaves. For aid in tree identification you can look at http://www.MushroomExpert.com, which has a good section on tree identification. You could also go to your local library or ask someone knowledgeable on tree identification on one of your local mycological club forays. There can be a variety of other small plants or groundcover. Areas without much groundcover are easy to search, but you should also look in areas with moderate to heavy groundcover. It is harder to see morels in such an area, but it can be an indication of richer or moister soil and can be just as and perhaps more productive.
Moisture is a key determinant of morel growth just as it is with other mushrooms. Rainfall, including the preceding year, the months leading up to, and during morel season have a major impact on fruiting of morels. In order to grow, mycelium needs moisture over an extended period, not just during the season. In some years the rainfall and other conditions are so ideal that just about anyone can find bags full of morels. However, you can usually find some morels even in dry years if you know where to look. Spicebush, paw paws, or garlic mustard usually show where there is ample moisture, so looking for the areas with those plants or heavy groundcover can be helpful. If you find a morel make sure to make a mental note of what other vegetation or groundcover is nearby. It may help you find morels in others areas with similar conditions. Knowing this helps in identifying where there may be enough moisture to support morels. Natural swales and valleys are one good place to look because water always runs downhill. The floodplains of small streams are another. Even small depressions can hold enough extra moisture to produce morels. The place where a steep slope meets relatively level ground is another potential good spot. Not only does water tend to accumulate in such places, so does organic material. This leads to more moisture retention and a potential food source for the morel mycelium. There are spots where the underlying bedrock is solid enough that water from rainfall even months ago that has seeped downhill and accumulated will be sufficient to produce morels under even the driest conditions. Learn to recognize and remember places like this. This can be a matter of trial and error, but there are methods that may help identify such an area. Poking a stick into the soil and seeing how much moisture adheres to it is one method to tell moisture content; use of a finger is another. Watching to see if annual plants are wilting in most areas but not in others can show the presence of underground sources of moisture. Springheads are often good places to look for morels. Areas with many loose rocks on the surface may indicate that there may be loose soil and crevices for water to drain away from the surface. Not only is it hard walking in such places, but also it may be too dry for good morel production.
Soil temperature is important for morel growth. The most currently accepted theory is that morels begin to fruit when the soil reaches a consistent temperature of about 53° Fahrenheit. Many say that when you have a week of nighttime temperatures in the 50’s, morels should begin to grow. Morels begin to fruit in controlled conditions near this temperature, and this is consistent with the soil temperature of morels grown commercially. It is by no means an exact temperature, but can be used as a guideline. Soil temperatures can fluctuate greatly, even within a few hours. Readings taken in the same spot at the same depth five hours apart have varied by as much as 8° F. Even differing amounts of leaf litter or ground cover can affect the ability of the soil to warm or hold warmth from one spot to another only inches away. Soil warms from both underground and above ground temperatures. Several feet beneath the surface all the soil is the same temperature, as evidenced by constant temperatures in area caverns. The amount of sunlight and the air temperature both day and night are factors. Soil temperature readings taken in 2004 over a period of two weeks did not register a morning soil temperature above 52° F until the last day. One person reported finding over 30 pounds of morels that year but very few under the tulip poplars that usually produce the largest yields. If you want to take your own soil temperature readings, be consistent. Use a probe type of thermometer, preferably digital. Place the probe the same depth each time for your primary reading. Use the same spot each day and take the reading as close to the same time. Also try taking a series of readings at different depths, say 6 inches, 4 inches, and 2 inches. The observed temperatures can vary by several degrees. Note whether the sun is shining or if it’s cloudy. Keep a log to track your readings. Note when you find morels. As you become familiar with the temperatures when you find morels, you can just probe the ground in new areas to see if they are close to what they were when you found them elsewhere.
Another method for judging when conditions are right for morels is to use natural indicators. There are many plants and trees that begin to grow, bloom, leaf out, etc. at about the same time you are likely to find morels. It is said that the time to look for morels, especially white or yellow morels, is when the oak leaves reach the size of a squirrel’s ear. If you use these indicators for yellow morels, use the preceding stage of plant growth to know when you are likely to find black morels; i.e., instead of using when something is in bloom, use the stage when it is in bud.
Other indicators are:
- When the mayapples start to flatten out
- When the redbuds are in bloom
- When the tulip poplar leaves are the sizes of a silver dollar
- When the flowering quince blooms
- When the garlic mustard forms little broccoli-like heads prior to blooming. (It is also very good to eat at this stage)
- When the dogwoods bloom
- When the showy orchid is in bloom, it is the peak of white or yellow morel season
- When you see squaw root, it is near the end of morel season
- When the violets bloom
- When the ash tree leaves begin to show green
- When the spicebush has leaves
- When the trillium blooms
These are some of the indicators that many MAW members and others use as guidelines to when morels should be fruiting. There are likely many more that are used that have not been listed. Make written or mental notes each year when you do find morels. Keeping a calendar with written entries is a good idea. Record time, date, place, trees, temperature of both soil and air, ground cover, other plants in the area, what else is blooming, the amount of moisture, recent rainfall, amount and type collected, and of course location. Many prefer to do this in their heads, especially after gaining years of experience; but if you are new to collecting morels, it really helps to write your observations. It also helps you enjoy the other beauties of Nature while you’re out there.
There is yet another way to tell when it is time to look for morels. It is perhaps the easiest and fastest way-using the Internet. The following sites have listings of reported morel finds and two of them have public discussion boards as well: http://www.morelmania.com has a sightings button on their main web page. http://www.mushroomexpert.com has progress maps and a public morel discussion board. http://www.morelmushroomhuntingclub.com has both a public discussion board and mushroom finds page.
Geographical layout, elevation, and other items can influence whether the temperature is right for morels. South, east, and southeastern facing slopes receive more sun than those facing other directions. It is these slopes that are the first to warm in the springtime. Even in these areas, there may be spots that slope a little differently and can cause morels to fruit weeks apart. Higher elevations are subject to lower nighttime temperatures and take longer to warm up in the spring. The amount of trees or shrubs present can act as shade and present mini-climates. This is one of the reasons that not all morels in an area fruit at once. Logs and rocks on the ground can act to reflect sunlight and warm the soil near them faster than just a foot or two away. The logs also act to prevent surface evaporation. It is good practice to look next to these. Logs and rocks also tend to concentrate any rainfall that hits the ground around their drip line more so than open areas. Make sure to look carefully near such objects, especially if you’re in a known morel producing area. In the mountainous sections of Virginia and Maryland morels don’t always start at the bottom of the hill and work up. Often morels begin to fruit partway up the slopes. This is caused both because the higher elevations have lower nighttime temperatures and also because cold air flows downhill and settles in the valleys, possibly making them take longer to warm up each day. Knowledgeable morel hunters know spots and slopes where this happens on a consistent basis. A good topographical map or GPS can help you determine the elevation at which you are finding morels. Once this is known, you have a good chance of finding morels in other local areas with the same approximate slope and elevation. West and north facing slopes should generally be searched later in the season, but remember, this is not a hard fast rule. You should always scout new areas each year or each trip if possible. Just as elevation can be a factor, so can latitude. The further north you go, the later the season tends to be.
Once you have learned how to identify the proper habitat, judge the proper soil moisture content, and soil temperature, it is time to learn how to spot morels. Begin by looking at pictures of morels in books or other photos. You can put pictures of morels next to your computer, work desk, or other place they will be seen often. This can help imprint the image in your mind. Some go as far as placing dried morels around the home or yard to get used to ‘seeing’ them. The more morels you collect, the better the image will be in your mind and the better you will be at spotting them. Don’t be discouraged if you have a hard time the first few times you foray for them. You will get better the more often you find them. Learn how to ‘scan’ instead of staring. Scanning is kind of letting your eyes focus, but not quite. It is more of a quick focus on one area and then another adjacent area without staring at just one spot for more than a few seconds. Once you find a morel you can switch to more intense search of an area. Learn what distance your eyes can ‘scan’ the best, say from 5-10 feet or 8-12 feet, and concentrate on that distance. Individuals’ optimal eyesight range can vary significantly. Look just above the ground level. Walk slowly through likely habitat stopping every 5 to 10 feet and scanning the ground around you. Look at a spot, move your eyes a few feet, look again, etc. Then walk another 5 to 10 feet and repeat. It helps to scan as you walk. Stooping down and looking puts your eyes closer to the ground, and it is easier to spot morels sticking up above the leaves. It is said that small children make great morel spotters due to their eyes being closer to the ground. You should also look near the base of the trees. Morels can be right next to the trunk and from there to 10 feet away, sometimes farther. Some people stoop with their backs to the tree and scan from there. Another method to do a quick search of woods is to walk to a large tree, do a quick scan out to about 5 feet, and proceed to the next large tree and repeat. You can skip the ground in between if you want to scout a new area. You may miss a few morels this way, but can cover more ground and hopefully find new areas they are fruiting. Once you find some, then you can switch back to a more intensive search. It is usually better to begin your search at the lowest point and work your way uphill. This puts your eyes closer to the slope making it easier to spot morels. Another tip to use is to stop and mark the first morel with a stick, handkerchief, stone or other object once you spot one. Look all around yourself and see if you can spot others. Often, you will even spot them behind you that you missed. If you see several in different directions you can use small sticks and point them towards each morel. At times morels can be seen from only one direction and it helps to be able to go back to where you first spotted it and look again. Working outward from your original spot is another good method. Save the first one you spotted until you are confident you have found all the morels in an area.
Walking sticks can be used for more than one purpose. As stated above, they can be used to pinpoint where you first spot a morel and test for soil moisture. They aid in climbing hills and can prevent nasty falls. They can also be used going downhill or crossing small streams or logs. A walking stick may feel comfortable if it is just above waist height, but one about chin height is better suited for going downhill or crossing streams and logs. It easy to leave a walking stick behind, so keeping the stick at the first morel spotted gives you a reason to remember not to leave it or the morel behind.
When you are picking morels, practice a certain amount of etiquette. If someone nearby finds a morel it is not an invitation to come pick in the same spot, unless asked to do so. You should give the person at least 10-15 feet of room and perhaps more. If several people are foraying together each person should be aware of the other morel hunters around them and try not to cross in front of them if at all possible. At times you might have to go around fallen trees or thick vegetation such that crossing can’t be avoided. It can be helpful in a group setting to walk in the same general direction much of the time, unless you find an area where morels are fruiting. If you meet someone who is not part of your group, a quick ‘hello’ or ‘how are you doing’ can be appropriate. Inevitably paths will cross at times, but since most morel hunting is on public land, no one has more of a right to pick morels than another does. Some like to shout ‘bingo’ when they find a morel. This can encourage others that you may be foraying with that morels are in the area. If you are in an area with people you don’t know, it may not be wise to shout this or you may have them come and ‘share’ your spot. Remember this variation of the Golden Rule. Treat other morel hunters, as you would like to have them treat you.
So in conclusion, make sure you look in the proper habitat, judge the moisture, temperature, and other conditions to ensure a relatively good chance at finding morels. Learn to read Nature’s signs and record them either on paper or in your head. The more time you spend looking for morels, the more likely you are to become familiar with the conditions that help to ensure success.
This article was written by Tim Geho, with input from the following people who assisted with suggestions, comments, proofreading, and content:
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The following introduction to the Ohio Mushroom Society is presented by Walt Sturgeon. The video is courtesy of Cable 9 Community Television.
All work © Cable 9 Community Television in conjunction with the Ohio Mushroom Society. Please do not use without written consent from Cable 9 Community Television and the Ohio Mushroom Society.
I only recently became aware of the work of one of our members, Alan McClelland, by a post he made to the OMS Yahoo Group. Online Alan uses the design/photography moniker eye.lyft (meaning visual elevation) and maintains a personal blog of his work from both the past and present. Alan is a freelance graphics artist by trade which gives him a perspective on the world of fungi that others may not always see or appreciate. He is also a passionate nature photographer at heart and has been capturing nature with his camera lens throughout Ohio for over a decade now. Since joining OMS in the summer 2010, he has transitioned his primary focus on the world of Fungi and has been working on several seasonal series up to this very day. Alan has graciously agreed to allow me to share his work here and I plan to highlight his Forgotten Wonders Beneath the Trees series for the future enjoyment of our mycological enthusiasts and future fungaphiles!
Forgotten Wonders Beneath the Trees.
“This is the fourth installment of this five part series that I captured between early September to early October of 2011. Ever enchanting colors unfold on the forest floor as the leaves start to slowly decay with wonderful richness. Much like late summer, fungi continues to flourish and fruit in the Allegheny Plateau and Till Regions of Ohio. Old growth Forest preserves and Hocking Hills Valley proved to be best for finding a vast variety of species especially. This series was captured at Clear Creek Metro Park, Wahkeena Preserve, Cedar Falls, Nelson-Kennedy Ledges, and the Rose Lake area located within Hocking Hills State Park.”
© All rights reserved by eyelyft
Inocybe geophylla var. lilacina