June Rainstorms Make Fungi Forms

contributed by Lonelle Yoder

Early June here in central Ohio was WET and HOT! As miserable as the torrential rain, heat, and humidity (and accompanying power outages) was for us humans, the mushrooms loved it and came forth en masse – perhaps, like me, you’ve found things growing around your home and woods that you don’t usually see. A mini foray around my urban yard last week yielded an array of fun finds.

Coprinopsis sp
This Coprinopsis species has been popping up in all the beds I mulched this spring – perhaps it arrived with the mulch? I love the way it deliquesces. I also love the word “deliquesce.”
Parasola plicatilis?
Here’s another coprinoid that I often see in abundance after a rainy period, probably Parasola plicatilis, pleated inkcap
Peziza sp
This cup fungus (Peziza) is a new one for me – apparently they’re difficult to ID to species without a microscope.
Xylaria polymorpha
You might find it surprising to see Xylaria polymorpha growing in grass – I would too, if my neighbor hadn’t told me there was a large sycamore tree in this part of the yard which was cut down before I moved in. This is the first year I’ve seen the buried roots send up Dead Man’s Fingers, but they have appeared several times this spring.
Candelleomyces candelleanus
Here’s another gift from those buried sycamore roots: Candolleomyces candolleanus (formerly Psathyrella), Pale Brittlestem
Laccaria sp
Laccaria sp. growing on mulch
LBM with coprinoid lurking in the background
I’m not sure what this guy is, but he has a coprinoid buddy keeping watch over him
unidentified white mushroom
Another unknown species pushing its way out of a log. It was gone a couple days later when I went back to see if it had grown; perhaps eaten by a squirrel?
Trichia decipiens & Arcyria cinerea?
Another log in a shady spot produced multiple slime molds! The orange and brown globes at the bottom are possibly Trichia decipiens in two stages of maturity, and the white fuzz at the top later developed into what you see in the next photo:
Arcyria cinerea & Stemonitis splendens
The same log, three days later: Arcyria cinerea at the top and Stemonitis splendens, chocolate tube slime, at the bottom.

This week’s dry heat has sent all the mushrooms and slime molds back underground, but I hope to see more of them when the rains return. I’m especially keeping an eye out for these earth stars I found in my “way-back” last August (possibly Geastrum saccatum?):

Geastrum saccatum? Aug. 2021

Mushroom Log Mar/Apr 2022

As with the last Mushroom Log, there are many photos, so the file is large. If you’re having problems viewing or downloading from the links above, try this lower-resolution version:

Full archives of past newsletters are available to members on the members-only portion of the website.  Join now!

Waiting for Morels

Pete Richards

I have a very good friend in Slovenia with whom I share interests in mineral collecting and in enjoying edible mushrooms. Mirjan and his wife Marija roam the local forests, collecting a great variety of edible mushrooms. Some are familiar to me because of closely related American species, and many are not. Mirjan often sends me pictures of the results of their latest foray – a table full of one or several kinds and colors of the currently available species.

But Mirjan has always been jealous of any morels that I find (I report my successes, of course). He always says that no matter how hard they look, they never find any. Apparently they don’t grow around there, he says.

So about the beginning of April, I got the following message from Mirjan, with the subject “unbelievable”:

You would probably recall my lamentations on morel mushrooms that we couldn’t find in spite of all our efforts. 

This morning Marija told me that some strange mushrooms were sprouting in our garden. As a matter of fact we had four days of a steady rain that was hardly expected because not a single drop fall in March. When I stepped out I couldn’ t believe my eyes. There were true morels growing in our garden – subspecies Morchella conica var. Costata. As of today, nine of them. The largest on the photograph is about 7 cm tall.

Last year we decided to revive our garden a little bit and changed a green layer of I-don’t-know-the-name-of-green-plant that covered that portion and covered it with tree bark. It seems that the morels were always there but we didn’t noticed them under the green cover. It is, namely, obvious that they grow from under the slabs. I’ll wait for a day or two to see if they will get larger, otherwise they will end on a plate. I look forward to eating them.

And a couple of days later:

It was evident today that the morels had gained in size, but I couldn’t resist any longer so they fell victim to my appetite. Marija prepared them with spaghetti and cream — delicious.
 
I made two photographs on April 3 and today, and put them side by side in approximately the same scale. See the attached file. I’d say that the largest one gained about 25% in four days, which was not enough to wait any longer. Who knows, maybe a wicked and greedy snail would come by and eat away all of my decades long efforts.

It may comfort some Ohio morel hunters to know that the frustration of a failed search is widely shared. Still, I would not recommend the strategy of waiting for them to appear in your garden!

Summer Foray registration closed

What? But it just opened!

Indeed. Response to our member announcement regarding online registration for the Summer Foray was immediate and overwhelming! Clearly we’re all jonesing for some time in the woods. We’re so sorry that we can’t accommodate everyone who wants to attend – it comes down to space limitations.

If you are a current member and would like to be placed on the waiting list, you can email Lonelle Yoder to make that request. Please include your phone number and the number of adults and children in your household who would like to attend.

In the meantime, keep an eye on our Events Page for a mini foray near you!

Membership Renewal Reminder

If you haven’t sent in your annual membership dues yet, now’s a great time to do that!

Here’s how: Print the membership form, fill it out, and mail it to the address on the form, with your dues.

Here’s why: After two years off, we’re finally getting back to offering our 2-day Summer Foray in July. However, responsible organizing in COVID times dictates that we limit attendance to allow for social distancing. This means Summer Foray attendance will be by registration only, and spots may fill quickly. “Early bird” registration will open soon for current, paid members – so get that membership form and check in the mail!

(If you’ve signed up for a life membership, of course, no renewal is necessary)

Members, look for an email within the next week or so with foray details and a link to the online registration form.

Of Slimes and Slimariums

contributed by Crystal Davidson

Sneakily slithering, seeking sustenance, single celled slime molds slowly slide through the forest…

It takes a keen eye, and a good amount of moisture to catch a myxomycete! These tiny friends of fungi are often found on dead wood, but can sometimes even be seen creeping across your lawn.

The first myxo that ever caught my attention was Arcyria denudata, which I first saw in a field guide. I immediately loved the common name “Cotton Candy Slime Mold”. Getting to meet one in real life, however, was even more thrilling, as the tiny pinkish red fruit bodies really do evoke memories of the fluffy fair food! One of the most prolific slimes in our area is Fuligo septica, which has the stomach-churning common name of ‘dog vomit slime mold’. Since I’m not a dog owner, I can’t speculate as to the visual accuracy of this name, but I’d guess it exists for a reason. You’ll often find it creeping through a flower bed in urban areas, though it can be found in the wild as well.

There are also many species of Trichia, Hemitrichia, and Metatrichia that frequent Ohio. Careful examination of the subtle features of the fruiting bodies can sometimes aid in distinguishing them. For instance, this specimen is most likely Hemitrichia clavata, which looks very similar to, but has a more elongated cup at the base than H. calyculata.

Hemitrichia clavata

Another common myxomycete is Physarum polycephalum. “Polycephalum” means “many headed”, and the fruiting stage makes it clear from whence this name came. In the plasmodial stage, P. polycephalum can be difficult to distinguish from Badhamia utricularis and other myxos, but most slimes can’t be identified solely from this stage. Once they fruit, however, the differences are obvious. P. polycephalum usually fruits upwards, away from gravitational forces, whereas B. utricularis typically hangs down.

A fun thing to do with myxomycetes is to capture them and bring them home to start your very own personal slimarium! To create one, you’ll need an enclosed container to keep in both your slime and any unexpected visitors that may sneak home with you. An old fish tank with a bit of plastic wrap over the top worked quite well for me, although any clear enclosure will suffice. I added some large rocks, well decayed pieces of log, a few handfuls of live moss, a bit of water at the bottom, and I periodically misted inside to maintain humidity. When you’ve found a specimen, simply remove a small bit of the substrate along with the myxomycete, and carefully transport it back to the tank. In a pinch, you can even use a clear plastic food container with a moist paper towel at the bottom as a living area.

While slime molds love oats, and they are a consistently consumed food source, I’ve found it to be more interesting to offer them a variety of foods and see what they prefer! They typically love mushrooms, though they have strong preferences on which they will eat. Pleurotus spp. are always a favorite, Postia sp. was not a big hit, they only eat the bacteria off the surface of the Trametes versicolor, and they absolutely abhor Rhodotus palmatus. Additionally, they will eat pasta and the bacteria on the outside of acorns, but despise raspberries and broccoli. This is an example of how slime molds navigate to make choices and select food source.

If you’re wondering how this blob-like organism moves, it does so through a pulsing locomotion. The slime forms “veins” which are wrapped in proteins that squeeze, creating a wave like effect. The waves move forward and recede slightly less with each pulse through the finger-line extensions known as pseudopods. You can see the progress over time here, as well as the ripples of the waves in the second photo.

Since I was eager to find out exactly what my most recent slime pet was, I forced it to fruit by denying it food. Despite the fact that myxomycetes can perceive light and typically avoid it, when they are ready to fruit, they will sometimes climb up to a high point, which may help to increase the range of the spore dispersal. I was quite pleased to discover upon fruiting, that this specimen was in fact Physarum polycephalum, which is often used in lab studies, including the semi-famous study of slime molds solving mazes.

Physarum polycephalum fruiting body

Now you might have thought this story was over at the fruiting, and I did too! Imagine my surprise when after a few months of not introducing anything new into the slimarium, a second slime suddenly appeared! Remember, they are sneaky! In the plasmodial stage, this Arcyria cinerea doesn’t look much different than its roommate, P. polycephalum. Once it fruited, however, the differences were obvious.

Arcyria cinerea fruiting body

It is also interesting to note that there are some fungi that feed off of slime molds. I only discovered this Polycephalomyces tomentosus feeding on this Hemitrichia calyculata once I got home and was editing my photos. Next time, I’ll try to be more observant of the even tinier things.

Polycephalomyces tomentosus feeding on Hemitrichia calyculata

To learn more about these fascinating life forms, consider also joining the Facebook group Slime Mold Identification & Appreciation, which was even mentioned in the recent NOVA special on PBS, “Secret Mind of Slime”.

Winter Mushrooms

While we’re all gazing at the snow and dreaming of summer, enjoy these photos from OMS Board member Pete Richards of the mushrooms he found in Lorain County one one of those balmy days we had in December!

Galerina sp.
Exidia recisa
Stereum complicatum
Panellus stipticus
These puffballs have puffed their last puff
Tolypocladium longisegmentatu
Phebia incarnata
Stereum ostreum
Lycogala epidendron
some unidentified fellows (possibly Mycena?) demurely tucked away in a hole
Trametes betulina
…and last, but certainly not least, this stunning Trametes versicolor

Notable Events in 2021

by OMS board of volunteers chairperson Debra Shankland

Your volunteers in the Ohio Mushroom Society were happy to return to offering in-person forays in 2021.  Although we took another year off from large, full-weekend forays, nine limited-participant mini forays were conducted in Ashtabula, Columbiana, Darke, Hancock, Lorain, Perry and Portage counties.

In addition to our own events, our members were informed via email about local mushroom-themed movies and regional events hosted by others, such as a two-hour mushroom ID webinar hosted by OSU Extension.

Our Mushroom Log newsletter had undergone a change in editors in the past year.  We appreciate Bob Antibus for taking on this huge task, and thank Dave Miller for his many, many years of putting together this interesting and informative read.  We conducted a survey of our newsletter readers to gauge their interest in the Log’s different departments, and importantly, their willingness to receive the newsletter electronically only.  A large majority welcomed the change, which will allow us to feature full-color photos, resource links, and even more pages without the limitations of print starting in 2022.

In addition to our formal newsletter, six blogs were posted to this website in this past year, providing recipes, humor and timely tidbits.

If you value all of these services, don’t forget to renew your membership for 2022.  OMS memberships run from Jan 1 – Dec 31, and lifetime memberships are offered as well.  Another benefit of OMS membership is a discount on the North American Mycological Association membership, saving you $5.  You can check out NAMA at https://namyco.org

Finally, I’m going to boast that OMS was listed as an important resource in a two-page color spread in the 6 Oct 2021 issue of the Cleveland Plain Dealer, leading their “Taste” section.  We take pride in helping people further their knowledge and appreciation of fungi, and it feels good to be recognized for our efforts.